Zhanga Redux

The chronicles of the work and personal life of a boring software developer with an awesome dog.

Generating a decrypted PDF using QPDF

Saturday, March 14, 2020


If you have a password-protected PDF and want to generate a decrypted version, it’s very simple with QPDF:

$ qpdf --password=123 --decrypt input.pdf output.pdf

To avoid entering the password on the command line (perhaps you don’t want it saved in your shell history):

$ qpdf @- --decrypt input.pdf output.pdf

Then enter --password=123 and hit enter and ^D.

Tags: pdf | Posted at 22:04 | Comments (6)

Disabling kdump to reclaim missing RAM on CentOS 8

Saturday, January 25, 2020


After setting up a Droplet on DigitalOcean (a VPS) using their CentOS 8 image, I found that various sources (like top, free, and even /proc/meminfo) were reporting only 821 MB of total RAM, even though the instance should have had 1 GB. Where did the missing ~200 MB go?

It turns out that kdump is enabled by default. In short, it uses a second kernel to capture dumps in case the running kernel crashes. I don't need this since I'm not going to do anything useful with those dumps anyway, so here's how to disable it and get the memory back.

First, check to see if it's enabled by looking for a nonzero value in /sys/kernel/kexec_crash_size:

$ cat /sys/kernel/kexec_crash_size

You'll also see a line like this in dmesg:

kernel: Reserving 160MB of memory at 672MB for crashkernel (System RAM: 1023MB)

To disable it, edit /etc/default/grub and change crashkernel=auto to crashkernel=no, then:

# grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
# systemctl disable kdump
# reboot

Now you should have your memory back!

Tags: centos,linux | Posted at 18:16 | Comments (3)

Identifying file associated with a bad sector on ext2/ext3/ext4

Monday, April 16, 2018


I got some SMART warnings about a bad sector on my hard drive, and I wanted to know which specific file had the bad sector.

First, I looked at the SMART logs to see where the problem was:

# smartctl -x /dev/sdd
...

  After command completion occurred, registers were:
  ER -- ST COUNT  LBA_48  LH LM LL DV DC
  -- -- -- == -- == == == -- -- -- -- --
  40 -- 51 00 08 00 00 04 4b 5b c0 40 00  Error: UNC at LBA = 0x044b5bc0 = 72047552

...

fdisk -l is useful for looking at the partition info and sector size:

# fdisk -l /dev/sdd
Disk /dev/sdd: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x54afc7e9

Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sdd1        2048 3907029167 3907027120  1.8T 83 Linux

Then I used badblocks to look around that physical sector for more bad sectors. My sector size is 512 bytes, shown above; also, badblocks takes the end sector number first, followed by the start sector:

# badblocks -b 512 /dev/sdd 72047570 72047540
72047552
72047553
72047554
72047555
72047556
72047557
72047558
72047559
72047560

Finally, debugfs is useful for finding which files are on those blocks.

Explanation:

  1. First, find the logical filesystem block number by computing (physical sector - partition start sector) * (physical sector size / filesystem block size). In my case, this would be (72047552 − 2048) * (512 / 4096) = 9005688. Since there are 9 contiguous sectors affected, the bad area stretches into block 9005689 as well.
  2. Use testb to see whether there is actually anything there. If not, then no data is lost.
  3. Use icheck to find the inode corresponding to those blocks. Luckily (?), both bad blocks are associated with the same inode here.
  4. Finally, use ncheck to find the pathname(s) associated with the inode.
# debugfs /dev/sdd1
debugfs 1.43.5 (04-Aug-2017)
debugfs:  testb 9005688
Block 9005688 marked in use
debugfs:  testb 9005689
Block 9005689 marked in use
debugfs:  icheck 9005688
Block   Inode number
9005688 105518423
debugfs:  icheck 9005689
Block   Inode number
9005689 105518423
debugfs:  ncheck 105518423
Inode   Pathname
105518423       /drz/rdiff-backup/artanis/var/lib/pgsql/data/base/21595/26720

Here, it was just a backup file, so once I swap out the hard drive or reallocate the sector, the next backup cycle will fix the lost data.

Tags: linux | Posted at 22:57 | Comments (2)

Using 7-Zip to create AES-256 encrypted zip files from the command line

Sunday, March 11, 2018


The default encryption method used by 7-Zip for Zip files, and the only method supported by InfoZip, is ZipCrypto, which is generally pretty terrible. To create AES-256 encrypted archives using 7-Zip, use:

$ 7z a -tzip -mem=AES256 -p super-secret.zip super-secret.txt

To verify that it worked, use:

$ 7za l -slt super-secret.zip

Notice that all the filenames within the archive are visible; I don't think 7-Zip supports Zip header encryption. You can do it the ghetto way by simply putting a Zip inside an encrypted Zip to hide the filenames in the inner one.

Tags: | Posted at 20:50 | Comments (5)

Dual-booting Fedora 25 and Windows 10 on Thinkpad T560 with UEFI

Tuesday, February 28, 2017


I just bought a new Lenovo Thinkpad T560. It runs both Windows 10 and Fedora 25 quite well, but I had a lot of trouble getting the system to dual-boot. In hopes of helping somebody, here are the steps I had to take to get it to work. I'm assuming you're starting with a new laptop with Windows 10 installed, since that's what it comes with from the factory.

  1. Before doing anything else, open Power Options in Windows and turn off "fast startup" so that Windows fully shuts down.
  2. Open Disk Management and shrink the Windows partition, leaving enough space for the Linux installation. Luckily, the Windows 10 Disk Management tool makes this very easy and very fast — it wasn't so in the past!
  3. Head over to a different machine already running Fedora, and grab the netinst iso image. I got mine from here; see the links on the right-hand side of the page.
  4. Create USB boot media using livecd-iso-to-disk:
    # livecd-iso-to-disk Fedora-netinst-x86_64-25-1.3.iso /dev/sdb1
  5. The Thinkpad has UEFI Secure Boot enabled by default, which prevents it from booting off of this USB drive. Reboot the laptop and enter the Thinkpad setup utility by hitting F1 at the boot screen. Disable Secure Boot, and enable UEFI + Legacy boot. Save and exit the setup utility.
  6. At the boot screen again, hit F12 to enter the boot menu and choose the USB drive.
  7. Follow the Fedora installer like normal, taking care of course to only create partitions in the free space and not overwrite any existing partitions. Since this is a laptop with one drive, I didn't see any need for LVM and I chose the "standard" partitioning + encryption.
  8. After Fedora setup finished, I wasn't able to boot off the hard drive at all, not even into windows. So, boot off of the USB drive again. Choose the recovery option. It will find the new Fedora installation.
  9. chroot into your system:
    # chroot /mnt/sysimage
  10. Fedora's installer seems to have detected the system as a BIOS (not EFI) booting system. Let's fix that. Open parted:
    # parted /dev/sda
  11. At the parted prompt, toggle the pmbr_boot flag off:
    (parted) toggle disk_toggle pmbr_boot
    (parted) q
    You can verify this worked by issuing print. The "Disk Flags" list should not contain pmbr_boot. At this point, Windows should be bootable if you hit F12 at the startup screen and choose the Windows Boot Manager, but Fedora still won't boot.
  12. Locate your EFI partition, which is the one with type EFI System. Mine is /dev/sda1, and yours probably is too.
    # fdisk -l
    Disk /dev/sda: 477 GiB, 512110190592 bytes, 1000215216 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    Disklabel type: gpt
    Disk identifier: (a UUID here)
    
    Device         Start        End   Sectors   Size Type
    /dev/sda1       2048     534527    532480   260M EFI System
    /dev/sda2     534528     567295     32768    16M Microsoft reserved
    /dev/sda3     567296  205367295 204800000  97.7G Microsoft basic data
    ...
  13. Get the EFI partition's UUID:
    # blkid /dev/sda1
  14. Add a line to /etc/fstab so it always gets mounted:
    UUID=abcd-0123 /boot/efi vfat defaults 0 2
  15. Mount it:
    # mount -a
    You should see some files in /boot/efi now.
  16. Install stuff needed for EFI boot. Remember, you are still booted into the USB recovery system, but these will install into the right place since the system is chroot'ed.
    # dnf install grub2-efi grub2-efi-modules shim
  17. Because the system is still booted off of the USB drive, grub2-mkconfig doesn't think the system is an EFI system at this point. We'll need to manually copy the GRUB config file:
    # cp /boot/grub2/grub.cfg /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/grub.cfg
  18. Open /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/grub.cfg (e.g. with vi) and search/replace linux16 and initrd16 with linuxefi and initrdefi.
  19. Now reboot and hit F12 at the boot screen to open the boot menu. Choose to boot off of the hard drive. You should get the GRUB menu and Fedora should boot!
  20. To be sure that this will survive kernel updates, once you've successfully booted into Fedora, try this and make sure it still boots:
    # grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/grub.cfg
  21. Go back into the Thinkpad setup utility, switch it to boot from UEFI only, and re-enable Secure Boot.

At this point, Fedora should show up in the boot menu that appears when you hit F12, and it can be set as the default using the setup utility. To boot Windows, either choose the Windows Boot Manager from the boot menu, or choose Windows from the GRUB menu. Either way works.

Aside from this painful series of steps which almost made me want to give up and just wipe Windows off of it completely, the T560 actually works really well with Fedora. I guess Linux isn't what it was 15 years ago — wifi, audio, suspend, OpenGL, display brightness, everything just works fine out of the box. No screwing with wpa_supplicant, xorg.conf, or any of that! And the battery life on this machine is magnificent!

Tags: fedora, installation, linux | Posted at 15:23 | Comments (3)